The Judicial Branch is responsible for the resolution of all matters involving civil and criminal law in the State of Maryland. Judges base their decisions on statutory law, common law, or equity Maryland has a four-tiered Court system consisting of the District Court of Maryland, Circuit Courts, the Court of Special Appeals, and the Court of Appeals.

Various units, boards, and commissions exist within the judiciary to facilitate the judicial process and assist judges of the different courts. The Judicial Nominating Commissions, for example, present names to the Governor when vacancies occur on any of the appellate or circuit courts. The State Law Library is the principal law reference library in the State. Also within the Judiciary Department are the State Board of Law Examiners, which conducts examinations for prospective members of the State Bar, and the Attorney Grievance Commission, charged 'with supervising and administering the discipline of attorneys.